Serials were the soap operas of the 19th century. They consisted of a series of episodes which were published one at a time. Most episodes led to the next by ending in a cliff hanger, much like many TV drama series do today. Popular serials were collected into books and re-published as a whole novel. Some authors who originally wrote in serial form are famous for those novels today. These authors include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Charles Dickens.