Serials were the soap operas of the 19th and early 20th century. They consisted of a series of episodes which were published one at a time, either as inexpensive booklets or as stories in newspapers or magazines. Most episodes led to the next by ending in a cliffhanger, much like many TV drama series do today. Popular serials were collected into books and re-published as novels or novellas. Some authors who originally wrote in serial form are famous for those novels today, a notable example being Charles Dickens.